20
Sep
2012

Gametogenesis, Embryonic and Post-Embryonic Development of Drosophila melanogaster, as a Model System for the Assessment of Radiation and Environmental Genotoxicity

Dimitris J. Panagopoulos, (2012): ''Gametogenesis, Embryonic and Post-Embryonic Development of Drosophila melanogaster, as a Model System for the Assessment of Radiation and Environmental Genotoxicity'', In M. Spindler-Barth (Ed), Drosophila Melanogaster: Life Cycle, Genetics and Development, Nova Science Publishers, New York, USA.

The 'Drosophila experiments'' of Panagopoulos et al (2007: Cell Death induced by GSM 900MHz and DCS 1800MHz Mobile Telephony Radiation, Mutation Research, 626, 69-78.) were the first to show DNA damage after in vivo exposure to real GSM mobile phone radiation for only a few minutes daily for a few days. These experiments showed that GSM radiation is even more genotoxic than previously tested genotoxic factors like chemicals, food deprivation, and heat. They also explained the large decrease in reproduction (up to 60%) of the same experimental animal reported earlier by the same group (Panagopoulos et al 2004: Effect of GSM 900-MHz Mobile Phone Radiation on the Reproductive Capacity of Drosophila melanogaster, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 23(1), 29-43.). Subsequent Drosophila experiments (Panagopoulos et al 2010: Bioeffects of Mobile Telephony Radiation in relation to its Intensity or Distance from the Antenna, International Journal of Radiation Biology, 86(5), 345-357) showed that DNA damage occurs for radiation intensity down to 1?W/cm^2 (which is 450-950 times smaller than the current ICNIRP limits for 900, 1800, and 1900 MHz frequencies used in mobile telephony) and the existence of a "window" at a distance 20-30 cm from the cell phone where the effects become even stronger than in contact with the antenna. Subsequent experiments showed that ovarian development is significantly decreased in females after DNA damage in the gametes (Panagopoulos 2012: Effect of Microwave Exposure on the Ovarian Development of Drosophila melanogaster, Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, 63:121?132).

In the present chapter, the reasoning behind the ''Drosophila experiments'' is extensively described, showing that specific protocols related to Drosophila reproduction are unique tools for fast and reliable estimate of environmental EMF genotoxicity.



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