Mortality of chicken embryos exposed to EMFs from mobile phones / Hand-Scanning
Technology Growing Exponentially (28/10/02)
Tramès per Klaus Rudolph (Citizens'
Mortality of chicken
embryos exposed to EMFs from mobile phones
BJ, Lebecq JC, Bastide M
Presented at the Twentieth Annual Meeting of the Bioelectromagnetics Society,
St. Pete Beach, FL, June 1998.
(Sponsored by R. Santini, INSA, Laboratoire de Biochimie Pharmacologie,
69621 Lyon, France.)
Conducted by: Laboratoire d'Immunologie
et Parasitologie, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Montpellier I, 34060
Montpellier Cedex 2, France.
Conclusion: Exposure to mobile phone-radiated
EMFs during development worsens embryonic mortality in chickens.
Method: We previously reported that
continuous exposure of chicken embryos to electromagnetic fields (EMFs)
emitted by television and computer worsens embryonic death (Bioelectromagnetics,
1997, 18: 514-523). The present study was designed to assess the
effects of EMFs radiated by mobile phones on the development of chicken
Two groups of 60 eggs each were incubated (21 days, 38 ± 1°C, 45-55% humidity,
permanent darkness) under the following electromagnetic exposure conditions:
control group (without the telephone); exposed group (24h/24h exposure
with the telephone switched on and placed downwards, 10 mm above the eggs;
the letter were distributed on a plateform with locations numbered from
1 to 60; see exposure system in page 2). The mobile phone used (Bosch,
CARTEL SL 2G2, Germany) radiates in the radiofrequency band with 2 W power.
The VLF and ELF values measured at different positions at the level of
the eggs are outlined as ratios, adjacent to the exposure system (page
2). The values over and under the bar correspond to the telephone
switched off and on respectively.
Embryonic mortality was evaluated by candling
the eggs and numbering dead embryos at two-day intervals from embryonic
day 3 (ED3) to embryonic day 13 (ED13): ED3, ED5, ED7, ED9, ED11, ED13.
Counting could not be performed from ED14 to hatching (ED21) because the
eggs had become so opaque (intense vascularization, increased embryo body
size) that the embryos could hardly be mirrored through the shell.
For the latter period, embryonic mortality was assessed by opening the
eggs from which the chicks did not hatch at ED21.
Three independent experiments were carried
out. Embryonic mortality was expressed either as cumulative mortality
(previous + current counts) or as total death rate (percentage of necropsied
embryos from ED3 to ED21). In the exposed group, EMF exposure was
accompanied by increased embryonic loss during the whole embryonic period,
while noticeable variations in the control group occurred mainly at the
end of incubation (ED21); furthermore mean total death rate (TDR) for
the three experiments was 6-fold higher in EMF-exposed group than in their
control counterparts (72.3% vs. 11.9%; see Table 1). Consistently,
necropsy distribution in the exposed group was essentially restricted
to an area around the source of EMF (mobile phone), which contrast with
rather sparse distribution in the control group (see the diagrams of cumulative
mortality in page 2).
Together these findings demonstrate that exposure to mobile phones-radiated
EMFs during development worsens embryonic mortality
Technology Growing Exponentially
By Rhea R. Borja
Casinos in New Mexico use it. So do Kroger's grocery stores in Texas,
financial firms in New York, and even some airports. And now, so does
at least one major school district. They all use biometrics, sophisticated
sensor or optical technology that reads genetic material such as fingerprints,
hands, irises, retinas, and even faces. That technology, which emerged
from the federal "Star Wars" missile-defense program begun in
the 1980s, is slowly gaining a foothold
in employee- management and security systems nationwide. And it's become
especially popular since the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks last year, its
More than 18,000 employees at San Francisco International Airport, for
example, report to work by scanning their hands through biometric machine
readers installed at more than 180 entrances. The Kroger Co., the nation's
largest grocery chain, is pilot-testing fingerprint readers for customers
to pay for groceries.
Here in the 206,000-student Philadelphia school system, officials are
using the technology to track the comings and goings of thousands of workers.
But some educators have serious concerns about this new way of employee
time management. Those worries are especially acute in Philadelphia, where
district officials plan to expand the use of
biometrics to all 30,000 employees next year including teachers. Ted Kirsch,
the president of the Philadelphia Federation of Teachers, said the practice
would violate educators' privacy and send the message that the district
doesn't trust them. "Is this Big Brother? How does putting fingers
in a machine tell principals where their teachers are?" he said.
"This is ludicrous. This is a police state we're living in."
How It Works
Currently in Philadelphia, about 3,300 school employees mostly maintenance-staff
members, as well as administrators and workers in food services, human
resources, and purchasing clock in and out by scanning their fingers.
The district has 284 biometric time clocks in 268 schools and four administrative
buildings. After the district expands the program to track all employees,
at least two biometric clocks will be in each of the district's 187 elementary
schools, three in each of its 42 middle schools, and four in each of its
30 high schools.
Gone are the days when workers inserted a paper timecard into a manual
time-clock machine, which "punched" in the date and time. Now,
an employee types his identification code into a small keypad and slides
his index and middle fingers onto a small black platform. The computerized
system, which is connected to the district's intranet, takes a three-
dimensional "picture" of the fingers by going underneath the
skin's first layer and measuring between 8 to 16 points of the fingers
through radio frequency. That image is reduced to a binary number, which
the system then matches with the employee's original image in a central
database. If they match, a green light on the machine glows, stating that
the log-in attempt is valid.
The biometric system, manufactured by Accu-Time Systems Inc., based in
Ellington, Conn., and installed by TimeTrak Systems, of Glenn Mills, Pa.,
debuted in the school district three years ago. Back then, the district
had a problem with cheating by employees who had co-workers punch their
timecards for them. In addition, many of the district's time clocks were
more 20 years old and didn't work properly, or at all. Replacement parts
were difficult or impossible to get, school officials say.
So Philadelphia decided to use technology formerly used mainly to protect
nuclear power plants and other high- security systems. "There was
an issue of time theft, so we wanted a system that couldn't be beat,"
said Thomas E. McGlinchy, the school district's chief operating officer.
The district decided to use a finger-scanning system because it
seems less invasive than fingerprinting, is virtually foolproof, and is
highly accurate, Mr. McGlinchy said. The finger scanners also use a technology
different from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's fingerprint system,
which means people don't have to worry about this information possibly
entering the FBI's fingerprint databases.
Noting privacy concerns, Mr. McGlinchy emphasized that the finger scans
are confidential. "This is subject to [the same protections as] anything
else that's in a personnel file," he said. "We wouldn't give
this out to anyone more than we would give out a Social Security number."
While the idea of using biometrics initially faced resistance by district
workers, their concerns were not about invasion of privacy. Employees
already go through rigorous background checks, so they saw biometrics
as something similar, said Thomas F. Doyle, the president of Local 1201,
a branch of the National Conference of Firemen and Oilers, which represents
the district's maintenance, food-service, and other employees. Instead,
they were afraid they would be exposed to diseases through the machines.
"If a person had a contagious disease of any kind, and if they had
an open cut, we questioned if that was transferable," Mr. Doyle said.
"The school district contacted the city health department, who said
the risk was extremely minimal to nonexistent."
Philadelphia initially spent $1.6 million for the system's installation,
software, hardware, and upkeep. Mr. McGlinchy said the district has saved
time and money since rolling out the new system, but he couldn't estimate
how much. Peter DiMaria, the executive director of Accu-Time, said that
companies can possibly see a return on their investment in the
equipment in under a year, depending on factors such as the number of
machines employed, and how many workers had been abusing the previous
time-management system. Despite the potential benefits of the new technology,
its use with teachers worries Principal Barbara Buckley-Deni. Her teachers
at the 709-student Albert M. Greenfield School already must sign in at
their school's front office at the start of a school day. Biometrics,
she said, "could be rather damaging [to teacher morale]. It sends
the message that we can't be trusted. I don't see the need for it. If
you don't really need it, then why have it?"
'Problems and Advantages'
Some school safety experts, however, suggest that biometrics could also
be an effective risk-reduction tool and help protect students. That's
one reason Florida is considering the use of it in schools across the
state. State education officials are researching how fingerprint readers
could help schools streamline student transportation and ensure that students
get on the right buses, said Adam Shores, a spokesman for the state department
of education. Use of the technology, which would be installed on or near
school buses, would begin in four to five years. "As technology advances
and becomes available, we want to look at ways we can make schools run
more efficiently," Mr. Shores said. "This also helps to ensure
the safety and security of students. It gives an extra measure of precaution."
But school districts need to do their homework if they're considering
employing biometrics, especially for student use, said Edwin C. Darden,
the senior staff attorney for the Alexandria, Va.- based National School
Boards Association. The NSBA does not have a formal position on biometrics
be familiar with the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act,
Mr. Darden said. If districts have taken those steps, then
finger scanning is not much different from student identification cards,
"The key difference is that you're taking it out of the physical
realm and putting it into the electronic realm," Mr. Darden said.
Still, he advised schools to answer questions such as: Will this information
be shared with others, such as the police? Will this change the climate
of schools, which must operate in an environment of trust? "It really
is new, and I don't think there's anyone anywhere who's thought of all
the implications of it," Mr. Darden said. "As the technology
grows and schools start to use it, we'll have more experience. But you
really need to think about the problems and advantages that might come
out of it."
The Trouble With Digital Angels
Resistance is Futile!
Also see: BowlingforColumbine.com (High Schools and Security)