moving of the cancer (Carla Díez)
In 32 years of history of the school there had been no case
cancer. Ever since they installed 36 antennas in a next building,
children have fallen ill in a year in this center of Valladolid.
September, 25,600 antennas of movable telephony were outside
One does not know if they are harmful but that they move thousands
I believe giving carte blanch to Meridian is disgusting.
method for doing so should alarm all New Zealanders. Secondly
resource consents and notification the public are denied cheaper,
efficient, sustainable and environmentally friendly power.
will be denied the right to insist on power corridors, a health
safety provision in many other countries and states. The health
are well documented and summarised below. Also of interest
of the recent Californian research
The report was prepared by the California Department of Health
under contract to the California Public Utilities Commission.
was 9 years in preparation and cost over $7 million. Based
extensive review of the literature plus considerable original
It is particularly significant because it incorporates the
change of the epidemiology of power frequency magnetic fields
began with the British Journal of Cancer study in October
study and subsequent research showed that the previous research
failed to detect a link between power frequency magnetic fields
serious disease had used incorrect methodologies, and that
application of the correct methodologies to this older research
demonstrate the existence of such a link.
In its Executive Summary, the three researchers who conducted
the study conclude:
"To one degree or another, all three of the DHS scientists
to believe that EMFs can cause some degree of increased risk
childhood leukemia, adult brain cancer, Lou Gehrig's Disease,
"All three scientists had judgments that were "close
to the dividing
line between believing and not believing" that EMFs cause
some degree of
increased risk of suicide, or For adult leukemia, two of the
are "close to the dividing line between believing or
not believing" and
one was "prone to believe" that EMFs cause some
degree of increased risk."
FIELDS AND HEALTH
BY: Richard W. Woodley - Bridlewood Residents Hydro
Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation are separated on the electromagnetic
spectrum by visible light - a frequency of roughly 500 trillion
second. Above that frequency is ionizing radiation which contains
energy to physically alter the atoms it strikes, changing
charged particles called ions. Below visible light the low
waves are non-ionizing - they do not possess enough energy
atoms. Ionizing radiation, such as nuclear radiation and X-rays,
long been known to be harmful. However, the question of the
effects of electromagnetic radiation, which is non- ionizing
Some of the first warnings came in 1972 when scientists in
Union reported strange health effects in switchyard workers
routinely exposed to high levels of electromagnetic fields.
experienced increased heart disease, nervous disorders, blood
changes, recurring headaches, fatigue, stress and chronic
Although concerns had been raised earlier, one of the first
epidemiological studies to indicate a health risk was a 1979
of Colorado study by Dr. Nancy Wertheimer and Ed Leeper which
two to three fold increase in cancer deaths among children
high current power lines in Denver, Colorado.
In November 1986 Dr. David Savitz, of the University of North
reported the results of a study done as part of the New York
Project which confirmed Wertheimer and Leeper's findings.
found increased incidences of childhood cancer and leukemia
EMF exposures above 2.5 mG. Dr. Savitz's final report to the
New York State
Health Department stated: "The degree of confidence placed
findings is open to varying interpretation, but the tentative
that the study is supportive of an association of electromagnetic
(EMFs) and cancer risk is warranted."
Dr. David Carpenter, the Executive Secretary of the New York
Project, in response to statements that the Project "revealed
that magnetic fields pose a health hazard" stated: "Any
cannot conclude that there are no effects." He said "It's
just wrong to
imply that there are no hazards." A second New York Power
was soon planned.
The findings of the Wertheimer and Leeper and Savitz studies
confirmed by a 1991 study by S.J. London et al., published
American Journal of Epidemiology.
A University of Southern California study undertaken by John
colleagues and published in the American Journal of Epidemiology
November 1991 also confirmed these findings. Public Power
reported on January 28 1992 that: "The most comprehensive
study to date of
childhood leukemia and exposure to electromagnetic fields
additional evidence that proximity to power lines may increase
When wire codes were used to measure exposure, the risk of
among children with the highest exposure to magnetic fields
was about two
times greater than the risk of leukemia among children with
the least risk.
There was no clear association shown when direct measurements
magnetic fields in the children's residences were used as
an indication of
exposure. However the discrepancy between results based on
and those using wire codes may mean that wire codes are a
predictor of magnetic fields, according to the researchers.
"Although magnetic fields are imperfectly approximated
configuration, the wiring configuration is determined with
is unlikely to change over time within a residence, and therefore,
actually be a superior indication of long-time field exposure
measurements taken." "Even though our 24-hour measurements
than measurements made in previous studies, they're still
snapshots", said Peters. "The estimates based on
may better reflect the long-term exposure."
These findings were further confirmed by a 1992 Swedish study
Feychting and Anders Ahlbom which reported a higher relative
risk of 2.7
times for childhood leukemia and 1.7 times for leukemia in
subjects exposed to higher magnetic field levels compared
control group in the study.
Christine Gorman in the October 26, 1992 issue of Time, stated:
the most telling results was that the cancer risk grew in
the strength of the electromagnetic field." She reported
with constant exposures to the weakest fields (less than 1
mG) had the
lowest incidence of cancer. Those exposed to 2 mG had a threefold
increase in risk and those exposed to 3 mG had a fourfold
the risk of leukemia. As Gorman stated: "Such a clear
it difficult to argue that factors other than exposure to
electromagnetic field were responsible for the extra cases
As well a 1992 Danish study conducted by Dr. Jorgen H. Olsen
five-fold increase in the risk of childhood leukemia, lymphomas
tumours where children living near power lines were exposed
to 4 mG.
Children are not the only ones at risk. Microwave News reported
March/April 1990 that "there are now at least 12 studies
pointing to an
EMF-brain tumour risk". Researcher Dr. Samuel Milham
Jr. stated: "There
are far too many positive studies to dismiss an EMF-brain
As well, Microwave News reported in July/August 1990 that
at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle,
uncovered new evidence for an association between occupational
to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and the development of male
cancer. The study supports the preliminary findings of a Johns
University (JHU) study, reported last year, showing an increased
male breast cancer among young New York telephone workers.
Paul Demers, working with Dr. David Thomas's research group
Hutchinson center, has found that telephone linemen, electricians
electric power workers have six times the expected rate of
cancer - a statistically significant increase. For radio and
communications workers, the risk was almost tripled. Overall
there was a
doubling of the cancer risk for all EMF-exposed workers.
A further Norwegian study found twice the expected rate of
in men in occupations which involved exposure to electro-
As well, a study by University of North Carolina researcher
published in the June 15, 1994 issue of the Journal of the
Cancer Institute, found that women in electrical occupations
more likely to die of breast cancer than other working women.
found the breast cancer death rate was more than twice as
female telephone installers, repairers and line workers, compared
non-electrical occupations. The results support four previous
that found elevated breast cancer rates among male electrical
Another study, conducted by Dr. Tora Tynes of the Cancer Registry
Norway, found that in a sampling of over 2,000 female licensed
radio operators born between 1934 and 1969, the risk of develop-
cancer was almost twice that of other Norwegian women.
Another occupational study, funded by Hydro-Quebec, Ontario
Electricite de France, was released at the end of March 1994.
It found a
link between the magnetic fields generated by electrical currents
increased incidence of leukemia among utility workers. These
confirm the results of a 1991 study by Genevieve Matanoski
telephone workers employed by AT&T with higher EMF exposures
times the rate of leukemia as employees with lower exposures.
"We believe our results speak for an association between
exposure to magnetic fields and at least one type of leukemia"
the authors, led by Dr. Gilles Theriault of Montreal's McGill
They found that workers with above-average exposure to magnetic
were three times more likely to develop acute myeloid leukemia
less-exposed workers. Acute myeloid leukemia is one of the
types of leukemia among adults.
A University of North Carolina School of Public Health study
by Dr. David Savitz and Dr. Dana P. Loomis published in January
1995 in the
American Journal of Epidemiology found that utility workers
greater chance of dying of brain cancer. The results demonstrated
workers with the highest EMF exposures had more than a two-and-a-half
times greater chance of dying of brain cancer than the least
workers. The researchers also observed a strong exposure-response
relationship for brain tumours.
Over 40 occupational studies have shown that adults who were
exposed to high EMFs in their work environment had a significantly
increased chance of dying of cancer when compared to other
In The Great Power-Line Cover-Up, published in 1993, Paul
review of 51 epidemiological studies of electromagnetic field
and cancer risk published in a California Department of Health
handbook. It found that 28 studies (55%) reported a statistically
significant risk, 15 studies (29%) reported elevated but nonstatistically
significant risk, and 8 studies (16%) reported no association.
In the same book Brodeur also refers to remarks made by Dr.
Carpenter, the Executive Secretary of the New York Power Lines
in the keynote speech at a conference on electromagnetic fields
Meriden, Connecticut on July 28, 1992. Dr. Carpenter, was
a June 1992 report of the Connecticut Academy of Science and
which stated that there was not enough evidence to support
that electromagnetic fields could cause cancer. Brodeur states:
"Pointing to the consistency of results between several
studies and more than two dozen occupational studies, he declared
the weight of the evidence clearly showed that people exposed
power-line frequency fields at home and at work were experiencing
increased risk of developing leukemia and brain cancer. He
recent studies showing increased breast cancer in men who
occupationally exposed to power-frequency fields were particularly
worrisome, and he warned that if breast cancer and other reproductive
cancers in women were also found to be associated with magnetic-field
exposure, the nation would be facing a major public health
added that to do nothing about the problem was unacceptable
are where we were with cigarette smoking twenty five years
In 1994 three new epidemiological reports were released. One
tie between occupational exposure to EMFs and Alzheimer's
another indicated a link with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
another indicated a tie with Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
In a case-control study of 387 Alzheimer's patients and 475
Dr. Eugene Sobel of the University of Southern California
School of Medicine
and colleagues found an association between occupational exposure
electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and Alzheimer's disease. The
study was made
up of two Finnish groups and one American group of subjects.
found that the overall odds ratio of subjects occupationally
"high" and "medium" levels of EMFs developing
Alzheimer's was 3.0
(p<0.0003) compared to subjects exposed to "low"
levels of EMFs.
A researcher at Coghill Research Labs in England recently
results of a study on the relationship between Sudden Infant
Syndrome (SIDS) and EMFs. This study examined the location
of all SIDS
cases in Inner North London between January 1986 and July
relation to obvious sources of EMFs. The researcher found
that not only
were SIDS infants living significantly nearer to EMF sources
controls, but the nearer the EMF sources, the younger in age
infants die. The author concluded that there is a correlation
chronic EM field exposure and SIDS.
Laboratory studies have also shown health effects from electromagnetic
radiation. Cass Peterson, writing in The Washington Post,
"Similarly, numerous animal studies have demonstrated
reproductive effects from low frequency electro- magnetic
embryos show a higher rate of abnormalities when exposed to
fields, mice suffer a higher rate of abortion and abnormal
exposed to slightly higher frequencies, approximating those
video display terminals." Peterson further stated: "In
experiments, scientists at the Cancer Therapy and Research
Centre in San
Antonio discovered human cancer cells exposed to 60 Hz fields
frequency of a high-voltage line) grew as much as 24 times
as fast as
unexposed cells and showed 'greatly increased resistance to
by the cells of the body's defense system.'"
While doing research for the New York State Power Lines Project
Jerry Phillips and Dr. Wendell Winters discovered that human
proliferated like crazy when exposed to magnetic fields. As
exposed cells became increasingly resistant to the body's
Drs. Phillips and Winters stated that their observations led
believe that it was possible that magnetic fields stimulate
the rate of
cancer cell growth, or act as a cancer promoter.
Research into how magnetic fields are linked to cancer is
undertaken. For example, Dr. Russell Reiter believes that
a variety of
different cancers may be promoted by magnetic fields. In a
presented in November 1993 at a United States Department of
meeting, he explained that "the suppression of melatonin
fields could result in a higher incidence of cancer in any
effect could clear up "one of the mysteries of the magnetic
issue," that is, "the large number of different
types that have
reportedly increased," he suggested. A leaked United
Council on Radiation Protection report (discussed later in
supports this theory.
A recent study suggests another possible cause. A British
by Denis Henshaw and colleagues at the University of Bristol,
in the International Journal of Radiation Biology on February
found that power lines attract particles from radon gas, a
carcinogen. They have found evidence that the harmful concentrations
radon products may be present around overhead power lines.
electromagnetic fields associated with the lines can therefore
concentrate a cocktail of potential carcinogens.
We only have room here to cite a sampling of the hundreds
studies that have shown a link between EMFs and health effects.
The utility industry's latest strategy is to argue that we
that there is a health risk from electromagnetic fields until
exactly how magnetic fields cause cancer, leukemia or other
This is a false argument as Paul Brodeur clearly points out
in his 1993
book The Great Power-Line Cover-Up. He states: "What
spokespeople conveniently overlooked, of course, was that
after definitive epidemiology had been conducted to show that
was a potent cancer-producing agent, scientists still do not
mechanism by which an inhaled asbestos fibre reacts in lung
cause cancer. Nor do they understand the mechanism by which
smoke reacts in lung tissue to cause cancer. Or how the chemical
pesticide DDT operates in breast tissue to cause breast cancer.
it to say, if public health authorities had been required
to wait for
the cancer-producing mechanisms of these agents to be fully
regulations governing asbestos exposure would not have been
warnings on cigarette smoking would not have been issued;
twenty-year old ban on DDT would not have been imposed."
In the United States several courts have ruled on the health
In late 1985, after parents brought suit, a Texas court ruled
Houston Lighting & Power had shown "callous disregard"
children's health by siting a 345 kV line within 200 feet
of a school
and playground. The court ordered the utility to relocate
In June 1989 a Florida judge ruled that children may not play
in a Boca
Raton school yard which borders on high voltage power lines.
was brought by three local parents who sought to close the
school because of potential electromagnetic field health hazards.
The judge noted that children have "no choice" about
going to school and
therefore EMF exposure at school is an involuntary risk: He
"a 1% chance that there is substantial danger is unacceptable".
Official recognition of the health hazards of electromagnetic
is slowly coming. In a report issued June 19, 1989 the United
Congressional Office of Technology Assessment stated: "Electric
magnetic fields produced by electric power systems may pose
health hazards." The report states that a growing amount
of evidence now
indicates that, under certain circumstances, even relatively
extremely low frequency (ELF) fields can cause biological
that, although the implications are still unclear, "there
reasons for concern".
Among the report's proposals is a strategy of "prudent
attempting to route new transmission lines so that they avoid
widening transmission line rights-of-way; developing designs
distribution systems - including new grounding procedures
- which would
reduce the associated fields; and redesigning appliances to
Further official recognition comes from a United States Environmental
Protection Agency draft report which, according to The New
(May 23, 1990), says that there is a possible link between
the electromagnetic fields generated by power lines. In particular,
agency's survey of existing human health studies found that
exposed to such radiation seemed to face a higher than normal
The findings on the possible health effects of exposure to
electromagnetic fields generally agree with those in the report
previously by Congress's Office of Technology Assessment.
Of the EPA report, Time magazine reported, on July 30, 1990,
Slesin of Microwave News, has printed what may be his greatest
the key paragraph of a two-year Environmental Protection Agency
recommending that so-called extremely low-frequency fields
as "probable human carcinogens" alongside such notorious
as PCBs, formaldehyde and dioxin. The recommendation, which
set off a costly chain of regulatory actions, was deleted
from the final
draft after review by the White House Office of Policy Development.
EPA thing is a stunner," says Paul Brodeur, a writer
for the New Yorker.
"It's a clear case of suppression and politicization
of a major health
issue by the White House."
Paul Brodeur wrote of the EPA report in The New Yorker: "In
spite of the
deletion, the summary-and-conclusions section of the draft
contained a persuasive indictment of power-line magnetic fields
cancer-producing agent. Its authors stated that five of the
case-control studies published in the peer-reviewed medical
showed that children who lived near power lines giving off
magnetic fields were developing cancer more readily than children
did not live near power lines."
Further official recognition came on June 29, 1994 when Washington
State's Department of Labor and Industries ruled that a former
employee of Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corporation in Tacoma
entitled to worker's compensation for cancer he claims was
exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on the job. This
is the first
ruling by a U.S. government body acknowledging a link between
exposure and cancer. The complaint filed by James Brewer pointed
that eight Kaiser employees out of the 90 who worked with
him in the
smelter's "pot room" had developed lymphoma or leukemia
Aluminum smelting requires unusually high levels of electrical
consequently workers are exposed to high magnetic field levels
the manufacturing process. In the pot room Brewer was also
exposed to intense heat and noxious chemicals including benzene
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Mr. Brewer's physician, Dr. Samuel Milham, has asserted a
EMF and cancer in aluminum smelters in his research. Dr. Milham
Kaiser's aluminum plant during the 1980s and found "way
too many cases"
of leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among workers there.
incidence of cancer in the Kaiser workers coincides with similar
findings in other aluminum plants.
The latest official recognition of the health risk comes in
United States National Council on Radiation Protection report
the Environmental Protection Agency and written by eleven
American experts in EMFs. Bob Edwards, in the October 7, 1995
New Scientist, writes that the report recommends an EMF safety
2 mG (0.2 microteslas). He writes: "EPA officials say
the report is the
most comprehensive study ever on the health effects of low-frequency
EMFs. Its findings represent a fundamental challenge to the
industry. The authors say that their recommendations, if accepted,
force `complex and costly' changes in society`s use of electricity.
"The committee`s chairman, Ross Adey, a neurologist from
Affairs Medical Centre in Loma Linda, California, says there
is now a
`powerful body of impressive evidence' to suggest that very
to EMFs has subtle, long-term effects on human health. `The
of the brain and its mechanisms to these fields is the key
understanding this issue,' he told New Scientist.
"The report recommends that future developments adopt
a safety limit of
0.2 microteslas. This is a very weak magnetic field, and stronger
are common around electricity pylons and close to electrical
New nurseries, schools and houses should not be built where
exposures breach that guideline, says the report, and power
lines should be kept
away from residential areas. Offices should be designed to
workers'exposure from computers, photocopiers and printers
The final report is expected to be released to the public
in late 1996
Public health officials are now beginning to take a position
on the EMF issue.
Patti Miller, who is in charge of the Washington State Department
Health EMF Task Force, is quoted by Ellen Sugarman in Warning:
Electricity Around You May Be Hazardous to Your Health as
the Department of Health, we've been answering questions about
dangers by telling people to avoid fields at the level of
3 mG. The
utilities recently complained to the governor's office about
it and the
governor has tried to make us stop saying this when people
call. But we
feel strongly that we can't just pass the buck the way they
all, we're responsible for the public health."
Dr. David Carpenter, former Executive Secretary of the New
Lines Project and now Dean of the State of New York School
Health, is quoted by Ellen Sugarman as stating: "I am
now convinced that
EMFs pose a health hazard. There is a statistical association
magnetic fields and cancer that goes beyond the shadow of
doubt. I think there is clear evidence that exposure to EMFs
the risk for cancer. This is most clear with leukemia and
but in the residential studies, statistical significance increased
all kinds of cancer. And we're just beginning to have a whole
evidence that reproductive cancers are increased by exposure."
The World Health Organization has, in early 1996, initiated
a 5 year
$3.33 million project to assess the health and environmental
exposure to electric and magnetic fields. An International
Committee will oversee the project.
Perhaps the most significant new factor concerning the EMF
is the increasing public awareness. The January 1-3, 1993
issue of USA
Weekend, a Sunday supplement magazine with a readership of
and a half million, contained a poll that asked readers to
they considered to be the United States number one environmental
priority. The results were announced in the February 19-21,
of the magazine. Electromagnetic fields were selected as the
priority by 35% of the readers; 17% chose chemicals in food;
indoor air quality, and 36% listed other environmental concerns.
The Bridlewood Residents Hydro Line maintains a Bibliography
Electromagnetic Radiation and Health which currently contains
entries consisting of scientific reports and journal articles,
and official reports, newspaper and magazine articles, books,
non-print media such as videotapes and TV programs.
Another extensive review of the the health effects of EMFs
is provided in
the Safe Technologies Corporation file in the Other EMF Organizations
REVISED MARCH 1996
Bridlewood Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) Information Service
plans to lower EMF limits
By Alex Kirby
BBC News Online environment correspondent
There are concerns about electricity fields
The exposure of people in the UK to electromagnetic fields
be cut significantly, the government's radiation advisers
National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) says the UK
international exposure standards.
EMFs are given off by many industrial and domestic electric
installations and appliances, including mobile telephones
circuits. Some experts say deeper cuts are necessary to protect
health. EMFs are measured in units called microTeslas.
The NRPB has recommended for many years that nobody should
be exposed to
a level higher than 1,600 microTeslas. But in a consultation
restricting people's exposure, it now recommends the UK should
guidelines of the International Committee on Non-Ionizing
Protection (Icnirp). The commission's recommended level is
far lower, at
The NRPB paper reviews recent research on possible health
It includes reviews of EMFs and possible health effects by
World Health Organisation, and the UK's Independent Expert
Mobile Phones. The NRPB says: "All scientific investigations
to uncertainties, including the interpretation of studies
possible adverse health effects of exposure to EMFs. "The
well designed and conducted studies have uncertainties that
quantified statistically, but may not always be explicable.
"Hence a cautious approach is used in making proposals
restrictions on EMF exposures."But some experts believe
traditionally cautious NRPB should have seized the chance
to be much bolder.
Denis Henshaw, professor of physics at the University of
BBC News Online: "The adoption by the NRPB of a precautionary
to EMF exposures is to be welcomed. "In the case of new
(power lines, sub-stations, etc.) this needs to result in
exposures well below 0.4 microTeslas, the level at which a
the risk of childhood leukaemia has been seen. "This
should also protect
against increased risk of adult brain cancer, miscarriage
and a number
of other adverse health outcomes. "In the case of existing
the adoption of the Icnirp exposure limit of 100 microTeslas
leaves people living near high-voltage power lines potentially
to magnetic field levels of several or even tens of microTeslas,
above the levels where adverse health effects have been reported.
"Future consideration will need to be given to reducing
respect to existing installations."
Two years ago an NRPB investigation found "a weak association"
EMFs and an increased risk of childhood leukaemia. It said
danger was slight, but recommended further research. The investigation
included a study of 3,000 children which suggested electricity
could double the childhood leukaemia risk. But the NRPB said
evidence applied not just to power lines, but to the effects
electrical power inside houses.
In 2000 a US study concluded people might be likelier to
if they were regularly exposed to low-frequency electromagnetic
The UK Electricity Association said it fully supported the
Dr John Swanson, its scientific adviser, said: "The new
proposals do not
change what the science says, but are more about looking at
be the pros and cons of changing the safety margins from those
we use now.
"This does not mean that the old guidelines were fundamentally
It is simply asking the question, should we have even greater
margins than we already have."
threat' to air safety
By Tom Symonds and Simon Montague
BBC Transport Correspondents
A text could freeze compasses
There is new evidence passengers using mobile phones endanger
according to a Civil Aviation Authority report obtained by
Online. In tests, compasses froze or overshot, navigation
inaccurate and there was interference on radio channels. Research
supports pilots who have complained about mobiles interfering
aircraft systems and distractions in cockpits, the report
says. It urges
airlines to impose safety measures including:
Ensuring flight crews turn off mobiles on the flight deck
Check-in staff asking passengers to confirm mobiles in hold
off Reminder notices in airport departure lounges and boarding
Since 1996, pilots have reported 35 mobile phone-related
incidents, including false warnings in the cockpit, distractions
aircraft to stray accidentally onto runways or fly at the
altitude, interrupted radio communications and multiple safety
Last September, factory worker Faiz Chopdat from Blackburn
for four months after being convicted of recklessly endangering
He repeatedly refused to turn off his mobile phone on an Air
from Egypt to Manchester. And in October, Russian businessman
Lebedev was fined £2,500 after forcing a British Airways
jet to abort a
landing at Manchester Airport. Cabin crew spent so long arguing
about whether he would turn off his mobile they were unable
and a link: http://www.electric-fields.bris.ac.uk/
NRPB Dose Assessment Methodology Report Published
NRPB has issued a public Consultation Document1 on advice
restricting exposures to people from electromagnetic fields
work and at home. The document reviews the scientific data
health effects from EMFs and how this evidence leads to quantitative
exposure restrictions. NRPB proposes that the exposure guidelines
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation be adopted
in the UK.
An aim of the Consultation Document is to receive comments
on the issues
related to EMF exposure restrictions and aspects of precaution.
closing date for comments is Monday 28 July 2003.
The Consultation Document reviews scientific information
health effects published since its previous reviews in 19932
It also takes account of reviews carried out by expert bodies,
the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection
(ICNIRP), the World Health Organization (WHO), the UK Independent
Group on Mobile Phones (IEGMP) and NRPB's Advisory Group on
Radiation (AGNIR). The review considers epidemiology, experimental
biology, volunteer studies and dosimetry.
All scientific investigations are subject to uncertainties,
the interpretation of studies on the possible adverse health
exposure to EMFs. The results from well designed and conducted
have uncertainties that can be quantified statistically, but
always be explicable. Not all studies are well designed and
and this must also be taken into account in any scientific
a cautious approach is used in making proposals for quantitative
restrictions on EMF exposures.
NRPB is aware of developments from international bodies including
ICNIRP and the European Commission (EC), towards the harmonisation
approaches to EMF exposure guidelines development.
Careful consideration has been given in the Consultation
Document to the
possible application of the Precautionary Principle to EMF
Proposals are set out in the document that would bring together
stakeholders, including the general public, to facilitate
discussion on EMFs and the Precautionary Principle.
Formal advice to Government on guidelines for limiting exposure
will be issued by NRPB after a review of the comments received
Hard copies of the Consultation Document are available, at
£30 per copy,
from the NRPB Information Office, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon, OX11
01235 822742, fax: 01235 822746, email: email@example.com).
credit cards are accepted for payment or a cheque with order.
10% postage and packing.
1 NRPB Consultation Document. Proposals for Limiting Exposure
Electromagnetic Fields (0 - 300 GHz). NRPB Chilton, 2003.
2 NRPB. Restrictions on Human Exposure to Static and Time
Electromagnetic Fields and Radiation. Doc NRPB 4(5), 7-63
3 NRPB. 1998 ICNIRP Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying
Electric, Magnetic and Electromagnetic Fields (up to 300 GHz):
Advice on Aspects of Implementation in the UK. Doc NRPB 10(2),
1 May 2003
Informant: Robert Riedlinger
Worldwatch Paper 165: Winged
Messengers: The Decline of Birds, Howard Youth,
Birds inspire people with their beauty, song, and powers
of flight. But
birds cannot fly far enough to escape the dangers posed by
ever-more-crowded world. Birds are under threat as never before;
least 103 species have vanished since 1800, and as many as
1,200 of the
world's 9,800 bird species face extinction within the century.
require many of the same things we need for a sustainable
their alarming decline is a warning signal.
In Winged Messengers: The Decline of Birds, Howard Youth
declines around the world and the various threats facing birds
wildlife sharing their habitats, and he shares what we must
do to chart
a course to a better future for them and for other living