* In Sweden, electrosensitivity is an officially acknowledged handicap - Respond to some of the concerns raised about intensification of RF fields by presence of metallic objects - Participation in the revision of Application of the Precautionary Principle to EMF - Greenpeace: HELP STOP A WAR: SEND A VALENTINE (14/2/03)

Dear Fiona Crowley, Imelda & Klaus,

N.B. In Sweden, electrosensitivity is an officially acknowledged handicap.

Thus, since you do not loose your handicap status travelling e.g. inside the EU, a treatment indicated below should immediately be legally reported to the EUs handicap-ombudsman.

Best regards

(Olle Johansson, assoc. prof. The Experimental Dermatology Unit. Department of Neuroscience
Karolinska Institute. 171 77 Stockholm. Sweden)

I would like to respond to some of the concerns raised about intensification of RF fields by presence of metallic objects.

The textbook entitled "Antenna Theory Analysis and Design" by C.A. Balanis, Wiley and Sons, New York (1982) has a very comprehensive chapter about the fields from antennas over partially conducting ground. The same basic arguments apply to fields near partially conductive structures. The field enhancement due to interaction of the direct and reflective fields is dependent on the antenna size (dipole length), relative to the wavelength of the radiation, the distance of the antenna from the ground or partially conducting structure, the polarization of the antenna, and the dielectric constant and electrical conductivity of the bounding surface (ground) or partially conductive structure.

For an AM broadcast radio tower, the antenna is nearly always a straight dipole, for TV stations and some FM radio stations, there may be more complex structures than just dipoles, but the analysis of their emitted fields can usually be represented as arising from multiple dipole sources (e.g., log periodic antenna) or as an emitting element plus reflective and directive rods (Yagi antenna).

Sources such as cell towers usually have antennas that are of two types: 1) either whip antennas (long straight dipoles) that may or may not have flat reflectors (when the antennas are mounted on the sides of buildings) and 2) antennas that have rectangular folded dipoles encased in weather proofing plastic. The latter antennas resemble flat blades, and they produce a directional emission pattern. The relation between the essential parameters of a folded dipole and those of linear dipoles are given in the Balanis book, so that one can compute approximate radiation patterns, allowing for the effect of the finite conductivity of nearby objects or boundary surfaces.

Most AM broadcast stations have vertically polarized (direction of the emitted electric field) antennas, TV station antennas often have horizontal polarization, sometimes circular or elliptical poalrization. Cell tower antennas are usually either vertically polarized or else have polarization at 45 degrees with respect to the axis of the antennas. However, the polarization axis is usually tilted slightly downward from what I described, because either the antennas are tilted a few degrees toward the ground, or else the antenna design includes an electrial tilt of the radiation pattern.

Incidentally, if one knows the manufacturer and model number of a transmitting antenna, the design parameters and the radiation patterns can usually be obtained from the internet. In the rare instances when those data were not available from the internet, I have found the manufacturers are glad to oblige by sending the requestor the data.

I urge those who are mathematically inclined to get this reference book and make estimates of the field enhancment under various circumstances, rather than speculating on whether using a tractor (for example) increases the radiation dose significantly when working near various types of RF sources.

I set up a calculation as I have described above and found that even a linear dipole begins to have complex radiation patterns as the length of the dipole increases beyond the wavelength of the radiation. By the way, a typical length for the kind of folded dipole used in cell towers is about 4 times the wavelength. The calculation model I set up also allowed me to consider the effect of various types of soil on the radiation field near the ground, as well as the effect of the wetness of the soil. Similar considerations appear in Balanis' book and in a much earlier classic engineering textbook on antennas by Krauss. I hope this information is helpful to someone on this list.

I am a retired physicist and one of the founding board members of the EMR Network, a national charitable organization in the U.S. that is working to help people with concerns about RF radiation and health. Much useful information can be obtained from the website www.emrnetwork.org.
I also presented a paper at the International Conference on Cell Tower Siting held in Salzburg, Austria in June, 2000. All papers presented at that meeting can be downloaded from the web site www.land-sbg.gv.at/celltower.

I urge your readers to read these papers. Among the outstanding contributions are those by Prof. Neil Cherry.

Bill P. Curry, Ph.D. Physics is fun
(630) 858-9377 Fax (630) 858-9159
EMSciTek Consulting Company

I have proposed to participate in the revision of Application of the next 24 February 2003, the first day, in Luxembourg.

The description and evaluation of NINE DEGREES OF HEALTH HAZARD (see attached) can help to recognize and accommodate the diverse disciplines necessary for successful implementation of Precautionary Principle.

Best regards
Miguel Muntané

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