Here is an earlier e-mail from Don Maisch re Vodafone UK
sponsorship of the UK National Autistic Society - perhaps someone at
Vodafone knows more about this connection then mast campaigners do ...
Best Yasmin Skelt,
From: Don Maisch
Sent: 22 May 2004 09:36
Neonatal exposure to RF and autism disorders
Considering that Vodafone UK has entered
into a three-year 'cause partnership' with The UK's National Autistic
Society (NAS), the following paper should be of some passing interest
to the Society members.
Vodafone's charitable support is to "enable
the NAS to expand the reach of existing programmes, which raise
awareness of autism and support people with autism and their
carers". Of course this good deed by Vodafone can make for some
good PR and can be written off as "advertising" on the balance sheets.
However this good PR may be somewhat off-set
if it is perceived by the public that Vodafone's technology may
be a contributing factor for the condition!
Medical Hypotheses (2004) 62, 195-197
A Possible Association Between Fetal/neonatal Exposure to
Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation and the Increased Incidence of
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)
Robert C. Kane, Ph.D.
The Associated Bioelectromagnetics Technologists, P.O. Box 133,
Blanchardville, Wisconsin 53516-0133USA. FAX: 1 608
523-6500; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Key words: autism; radiofrequency; radiation; RF; microwave; fetus;
embryo; neo-natal; blood-brain barrier; DNA; cognitive impairment.
Summary Recently disclosed epidemiological data indicate a
dramatic increase in the incidence of autism spectrum disorders.
Previously, the incidence of autism has been reported as 4-5 per 10,000
children. The most recent evidence indicates an increased
incidence of about 1 per 500 children. However, the etiology of
autism is yet to be determined. The recently disclosed data
suggest a possible correlation between autism incidence and a
previously unconsidered environmental toxin. It is generally accepted
in the scientific community that radiofrequency radiation is a
biologically active substance. It is also readily acknowledged
that human exposures to radiofrequency radiation have become pervasive
during the past twenty years, whereas such exposures were uncommon
prior to that time. It is suggested that fetal or neo-natal
exposures to radiofrequency radiation may be associated with an
increased incidence of autism.
© 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prior to the twentieth century the only
sources of radiofrequency (RF) radiation were the hyper-low levels of
RF energy originating from our sun and the even lower levels of
extra-solar RF noise. It is in this environment of low-level RF
radiation that life on earth developed and exists to this day.
During the 1940s, primarily as a result of
research and development performed as a part of the war effort,
industry and the military establishment were successful in bringing the
state of RF energy generation to maturity. From that time onward
we have witnessed a broad range of commercial RF energy product
applications including, most notably, broadcast FM radio, radar,
television, public-service mobile communication transceivers,
residential microwave ovens, and the portable cellular telephone.
Initially, the contribution of each
radiating device was imperceptible when weighed against the background
of incoming solar radiation. However, over the span of decades
the number of terrestrial RF radiation sources, now counted in the
billions, has increased to the degree that, presently, the base
radiation level is many thousands of times higher than from solar RF
energy impinging on the earth.
Notwithstanding the proliferation of RF
radiation sources during the early decades of the "radiofrequency age",
the 1940s through the 1970s, humans were seldom exposed to RF radiation
at levels that might cause concern. Since the late 1970s a number
of commercial products have become ubiquitous, which provide human
exposures to levels of RF radiation that are significantly higher than
either of the previous or present background levels. Research
reports indicate that RF exposure levels, typically encountered from
some commercial products, may induce alterations of biological
processes or damage to the genome 1 - 13.
Concurrently the incidence of autism diagnoses demonstrates a
pronounced, approximately linear, order of magnitude increase occurring
during the last twenty years 14. For several decades prior to
1980 autism incidence remained essentially invariant; reportedly at
about one diagnosed case per 2000 children. Byrd has reported a
present autism incidence of about one per 700 children.
RF radiation sources have become commonplace
in the personal human environment from approximately 1980 to the
present. Operation of an RF radiation source such as a two-way
radio, portable telephone, or a cell phone exposes the operator to
levels of RF radiation shown to be biologically active. Operation
of an RF radiation source also exposes others, in the near proximity,
to similarly biologically active levels of electromagnetic field
intensities 15. Passive operation, such as from an RF emitting
baby monitor, is a widespread postnatal exposure.
Some of the known effects of exposure to RF
radiation include cognitive impairment 16, memory deficit 17, EEG
modifications 18, DNA damage 3 - 12, chromosome aberrations 6,
micronucleus formation 7, 22, fetal malformation 1, 2, increased
permeability of the blood-brain barrier 19, 23, altered cellular
calcium efflux 20 and altered cell proliferation 21.
RF radiation emissions from residential
microwave ovens are, typically, on the order of 1 milli-watt per
cm2. RF radiation exposures from cell phones range from about 0.1
to 10.0 milli-watt per cm2. Portable two-way radios provide
similar exposure levels. The scientific literature confirms that
RF radiation exposures, at levels more than 1,000 times lower than
described immediately preceding, or on the order of 1.0 micro-watt per
cm2, induce significant changes in biological processes or molecular
repair mechanisms 12.
During gestation the possibility of
unobservable embryonic and fetal damage is increased as mothers-to-be
utilize and are exposed to the emissions from RF radiation
devices. Researchers have emphatically reported that an embryo or
fetus should not be exposed to radiofrequency radiation such as that
emitted by the portable cell phone or portable telephone. One
particular reason to avoid RF radiation exposure during pregnancy is
that an embryo or fetus may not be fully protected by amniotic fluid
for extended periods of time due to the natural movement of the embryo
or fetus within the womb. Secondly, the pelvic structure promotes
deep RF radiation penetration and that radiation can be absorbed within
the developing embryo or fetus.
Other researchers have postulated that there
may exist a previously unidentified environmental toxin associated with
the observed increased incidence of autism. For example, the
works of Byrd (California - 1999) 14, Bertrand 24, (New Jersey - 2001),
Taylor 25, (United Kingdom - 1999), and Chakrabarti & Fombonne 26,
(United Kingdom - 2001) clearly support the proposition that the
identified increased incidence of autism has an origin at about 1980:
an increased incidence that has its origin established at the very time
that the personal RF radiation devices came into popular use - about
1980. We propose that RF radiation, a new form of exposure of the
human embryo, fetus, and infant, and an acknowledged environmental
toxin under many exposure conditions, may be associated with the
increased incidence of autism. This proposition is further based
on the fact that these radiating products are periodically and
typically utilized in the embryonic, fetal and neonatal
environment. RF radiation is the only known toxin, exposure to
which is wholly correlated with the repeatedly documented increased
incidence of autism, which is now reported by at least some researchers
as greater than 1 per 100 newborn.
The hypothesis may be tested and further
investigated by employing accepted epidemiological techniques including
a carefully crafted retrospective questionnaire. In particular,
national or regional health registries, such as those available within
California, the UK and Denmark (the Danish Health Registry) can provide
the requisite study demography and RF radiation exposure scenarios,
while also identifying and precluding incorporation of known
1 Berman E, Kinn JB, and
Carter HB, Observations of mouse fetuses after irradiation with 2.45
GHz microwaves, Health Physics, 35, pp. 791-801, 1978.
2 Kaplan J, Polson P, Rebert C,
Lunan K, and Gage M, Biological and behavioral effects of prenatal and
postnatal exposure to 2450-MHz electromagnetic radiation in the
squirrel monkey, Radio Science, 17(5S), pp. 135S-144S, 1982.
3 Sagripanti JL, and
Swicord ML, DNA structural changes caused by microwave radiation,
Int J Radiat Biol, 50(1), pp. 47-50, 1986.
4 Leszczynski D,
Joenväärä S, Reivinen J, and Kuokka R. Non-thermal
activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone
radiation in human endothelial cells: Molecular mechanism for cancer
and blood-brain barrier-related effects, Differentiation, 70,
pp. 120 - 129, 2002.
5 Sagripanti JL, Swicord ML,
and Davis CC, Microwave effects on plasmid DNA, Radiation Research
110, pp. 219-231, 1987.
6 Fucic A, Garaj-Vrhovac V, Skara M, and
Dimitrovic B, X-rays, microwaves and vinyl chloride monomer: their
clastogenic and aneugenic activity, using the micronucleus assay on
human lymphocytes, Mutat Res 282(4), pp. 265-271, 1992.
7 Maes A, Verschaeve L, Arroyo A, De Wagter C,
and Vercruyssen L, In vitro cytogenetic effects of 2450 MHz waves on
human peripheral blood lymphocytes, Bioelectromagnetics 14(6),
pp. 495-501, 1993.
8 Sarkar S, Ali S, and Behari J,
Effect of low power microwave on the mouse genome: a direct DNA
analysis, Mutat Res 320, (1-2), pp. 141-147, 1994.
9 Lai H, and Singh NP,
Acute low-intensity microwave exposure increases DNA single-strand
breaks in rat brain cells, Bioelectromagnetics, 16(3), pp.
10 Lai H, and Singh NP, Single-
and double-strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells after acute exposure to
radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation, Int J Radiat Biol,
69(4), pp. 513-521, 1996.
11 Repacholi MH, Basten A, Gebski V, Noonan
D, Finnie J, and Harris AW, Lymphomas in E mu-Pim1 transgenic mice
exposed to pulsed 900 MHz electromagnetic fields. Radiat Res,
147(5), pp. 631-640, 1997.
12 Phillips JL, Ivaschuk O, Ishida-Jones T, Jones
RA, Campbell-Beachler M, and Haggren W, DNA damage in Molt-4
T-lymphoblastoid cells exposed to cellular telephone radiofrequency
fields in vitro, Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics,
45, pp. 103-110, 1998.
13 Hardell L,
Hansson Mild K, Pahlson A, Hallquist A, Ionizing radiation, cellular
telephones and the risk of brain tumours. Europ J Cancer Prevent
10, pp. 523-529, 2001.
14 Byrd RS, Sigman
M. Bono M, et al, Report to the legislature on the principal findings
from the epidemiology of autism in California: a comprehensive pilot
study, M.I.N.D. Institute, University of California, Davis, 2002
15 Bawin SM, Kaczmarek LK, and Adey WR,
Effects of modulated VHF fields on the central nervous system, Ann
NY Acad. Sci, 247, pp. 74-81, 1975.
16 Chiang H, Yao GD, Fang QS, Wang KQ, Lu
DZ, Zhou YK, Health effects of environmental electromagnetic fields.
J. Bioelectricity 8:127-131, 1989.
17 Lai H,
Horita A, and Guy AW, Microwave irradiation affects radial-arm maze
performance in the rat, Bioelectromagnetics 15(2), pp. 95-104,
18 von Klitzing L,
Low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields influence EEG of man,
Phys. Medica, 11, pp. 77-80, 1995.
19 Salford LG, Brun A, Sturesson K, Eberhardt JL,
and Persson BR, Permeability of the blood-brain barrier induced by 915
MHz electromagnetic radiation, continuous wave and modulated at 8, 16,
50, and 200 Hz. Microsc Res Tech, 27(6), pp. 535-542, 1994.
20 Paul Raj R, Behari J,
and Rao AR, Effect of amplitude modulated RF radiation on calcium ion
efflux and ODC activity in chronically exposed rat brain, Indian J
Biochem Biophys, 36(5), pp. 337-340, 1999.
21 Cleary SF, Du Z, Cao G, Liu
LM, and McCrady C, Effect of isothermal radiofrequency radiation on
cytolytic T lymphocytes, FASEB J , 10(8), pp. 913-919, 1996.
22 d'Ambrosio G, Massa R, Scarfi MR, and Zeni O,
Cytogenetic damage in human lymphocytes following GMSK phase modulated
microwave exposure. Bioelectromagnetics, 23, pp. 7-13, 2002.
23 Persson BR, Salford LG, and
Brun A, Blood-brain barrier permeability in rats exposed to
electromagnetic fields used in wireless communication, Wireless
Network 3, pp. 455-461, 1997.
J, Mars A, Boyle C, Bove F, Yeargin-Allsopp M, Decoufle P., Prevalence
of Autism in a United States Population: The Brick Township, New Jersey
Investigation, Pediatrics, 108 (5), pp. 1155-1161, Nov. 2001.
25 Taylor B, Miller E, Farringdon et al, MMR Vaccine
and Autism: No Epidemiological Evidence for a Causal Association,
Lancet, 353, pp. 2026-2029, 1999.
26 Chakrabarti S, & Fombonne E, Pervasive
Developmental Disorders in Preschool Children, JAMA, 285 (24), 2001.
PO Box 1403,
Phone: (03) 62430195